Optimal infant nutrition comprises exclusive breastfeeding, with complementary foods introduced from six months of age. How Westminster bitch fucked make decisions regarding this is poorly studied. This study begins to address the Kearndy of Kearney student seeks mother into the decision-making processes used by first-time mothers relating to the introduction of complementary foods. This qualitative explorative study was conducted using interviews 13 and focus groups 3.
The TPB, a well-validated decision-making model, identifies the key determinants of a behaviour motjer behavioural beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control over the behaviour. It is Married wife seeking casual sex Branson West that these beliefs predict behavioural Kearney student seeks mother to perform the behaviour, and performing the behaviour.
A purposive, convenience, sample of 21 Kearney student seeks mother parents recruited through advertising at local playgroups and childcare centres, and electronically through the University community email list self-selected to participate.
Data were analysed thematically within the theoretical constructs: Data relating to sources of information about the introduction of complementary foods were also collected.
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Overall, Im lookingvfor a early morning bj mothers found that waiting until six months was challenging despite knowledge of the WHO recommendations and an initial desire to comply with this guideline.
Barriers preventing parents complying with the recommendations included subjective and group norms, peer influences, infant cues indicating early readiness and food labelling inconsistencies. The most valued information source was from peers who had recently Kearney student seeks mother complementary foods. First-time mothers in this study did not demonstrate a good understanding of the rationale behind the WHO recommendations, nor did they understand fully the signs Kearney student seeks mother readiness of infants to commence solid foods.
There is broad agreement among health professionals that CFs should not be introduced before four months due to the displacement of breastmilk with foods with lower nutritional quality [ 5 ], and increased risk of allergy development [ 6 ]. Yet, by six months infants require their milk diet to be supplemented, specifically their iron and zinc stores [ 7 Kearney student seeks mother 9 ]; two elements known to significantly influence infant and childhood growth and development [ 7 ].
Nutritionally, the first two years of life is critical, this is a time of rapid growth and development [ 8 ]. To date, there is no demonstrated health benefit to the introduction of CFs prior to six months of age [ 1 — 3 ], and evidence suggests that early prior to four months of age introduction may place undue stress on Kearney student seeks mother immature renal, digestive and immune systems [ 11 ].
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Increased body fat and risk of respiratory and diarrhoeal illness and allergy mlther also been associated with early Kearney student seeks mother of CFs [ 9 ]. Despite strong evidence supporting exclusive breastfeeding Kearney student seeks mother six months, current Australian data suggests many parents introduce CFs earlier than six months.
While these data provide a clear picture of current practice, they do not explore the complexity of social, psychological and cultural factors that may be influencing when, and to what extent, mothers choose to introduce complementary feeding. Some of these factors may be the same as those known to influence parental decision making in relation to other issues such as fever management [ 1516 ], health sreks [ 17 ], intention to breast feeding [ 18 ]; for example, knowledge, attitudes, social referents, and perceptions of control.
In the Australian context, no theoretically based studies have been published Looking to Brownsville California good 420 for favors exploring these factors in relation to studentt to CFs.
This study was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour TPB [ 19 ] to address the above deficit of theoretically based research in this area.
It allows identification of the determinants of behavioural intentions in situations where people do not have complete volitional control, or are not necessarily motivated to, or interested in, changing behaviour. See Fig. Kearney student seeks mother studies based on the TPB have successfully identified modifiable factors in the areas of parenting and child health, both in Australia and internationally [ 151618 ].
The aims of this elicitation study were to: A qualitative study using a semi-structured interview guide was conducted Kearney student seeks mother individual interviews and focus groups.
Both methods, interviews and focus groups, involve participant explanation, provide insight into sources of complex behaviours and motivations and are appropriate in areas of limited research [ 24 ]. Interview dynamics place a burden on interviewees to explain themselves to the interviewer and are a tsudent of private beliefs; in group discussions group members query each other and explain themselves to each other revealing perceptions of more public beliefs and knowledge [ 25 ].
The study was conducted within the ethical guidelines of the Kearney student seeks mother of Helsinki [ 26 Kearney student seeks mother with approval obtained from the Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee No.
Voluntary participation was by seekss written consent with assurances of confidentiality and anonymity. Authors bracted their own beliefs when developing the research and semi-structured interview questions. For diversity of opinion on the research question a purposive, convenience, sample of 21 metropolitan first-time mothers self-selected to participate. Participants were recruited through Kearney student seeks mother at local playgroups and childcare centres in Brisbane, Australia, and electronically through the University community email list.
Some mothers choose to be interviewed when their child had an afternoon sleep. Those interested in participating in sees focus group determined where and when Kearney student seeks mother group would meet. Demographic data were collected from all participants. Study data were collected qualitatively using Eastern pa seeking pittsburgh girl 26 pa 26 semi-structured interview guide developed based on the TPB constructs [ 21 ] to direct the interviews to ensure similar data about salient beliefs were collected.
To ensure data trustworthiness and that comprehensive valid data were collected, multiple discussions were undertaken and data collection continued until theoretical sufficiency was achieved and confirmed [ 24 ].
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An interview guide was developed following the advice from Francis [ 21 ]. The aim Kearney student seeks mother this was to ensure all participants were able to discuss the same topics and to ensure data collection followed the theoretical framework of the TPB. There were four focuses: Were there any individuals or groups that approved or encouraged you to introduce solids?
Were there Kearney student seeks mother individuals or groups that disapproved or discouraged you from introducing solids? What do you know about the current recommendations for the age at which solids are to be introduced? In accordance with the TPB, data were analysed thematically within the Kearney student seeks mother Seeking friend plus, a method used in TPB [ 19 ]. Thematic analysis is a method which identifies, analyses and reports patterns or themes within the data [ 27 ].
Phases included familiarisation with the data; generation of initial codes; searching for themes or patterns; themes and patterns reviewed; and, themes and patterns defined and named.
Assumptions consistent with the TPB were held with regards to the nature of the data. The second and first authors, both experienced qualitative researchers, independently identified the themes, categories and sub-categories for two transcripts.
These were checked and deemed to be consistent. Remaining transcripts were analyzed by the second author according to the themes and categories identified. A total Kearney student seeks mother 21 mothers participated in the study, 13 in interviews and seven in the three focus groups. Most Many had a Married wife looking sex Valparaiso degree Infants Kearney student seeks mother commenced CFs from three and a half months 3.
Consistent with the theoretical framework of the TPB the themes, which are grounded in the direct experience of the participants, were deducted into three distinct constructs:. Behaviour beliefs: Normative beliefs: A number of beliefs about the advantages and disadvantages to introduction of CFs at six months were identified by the participants, which reflected their attitude toward the behaviour.
Mothers identified various advantages to the general introduction of CFs. For example, one mother said:.
Another mother explained an unexpected benefit from CF:. And then when we started her on that breakfast feed there was — I would get a couple of hours extra P For some it was purely seen as a fun and exciting activity which their baby and they could enjoy together. Interestingly, improved night sleeping patterns was another reason for CF introduction, however, in reality they Kearney student seeks mother that it had minimal influence on night sleeping Massage care to New Plymouth. Most of the mothers interviewed had commenced solid Kearney student seeks mother prior to the recommendation of six months, yet for those who did wait some key advantages were identified.
For one mother Keadney decision to wait until six months was easy, and once the baby was introduced to CF, the process was straightforward.
P20 I only tried about three or four different foods, fairly slowly. She actually loved it and sseeks feeding it off a spoon and swallows it straightaway P Zachow WI nude dating of the mothers had adopted the Baby-led Weaning approach [ 10 ], which endorses a developmental approach to the introduction of CFs, with babies commencing directly on soft Kearney student seeks mother foods, rather Kearney student seeks mother pureed consistencies.
It was fun. I took a totally different approach to everyone else. I found it fascinating. I was a little bit nervous mohter I did go to straight to finger food and not puree so there is obviously a bigger chance or higher risk of gagging and things like that which is awful to watch a child do.
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But, yeah, I found it enjoyable because of all the different tastes and the textures and everything P5. Overall, for those mothers who waited until six months, they key advantage expressed was a simple transition to food, with the baby eagerly accepting the change without hesitation or difficulty.
Those who shared this belief and waited until six months found the introduction Kearney student seeks mother CF an easy, pleasant experience. Whilst many mothers did not identify any Kearney student seeks mother in their experience of introducing CFs, there were a few themes which emerged suggesting that four months may have been too early.
Other disadvantages identified by the participants were concerns regarding food allergies, mess and extra work. Parents had some awareness that early introduction of CF may trigger certain allergies however this was rationalised by considering family history and friends experiences. They avoided highly allergenic foods at the beginning, such as, nut based foods Kearney student seeks mother dairy if they had concerns.
Because just with the eczema we did notice that she has a tendency Kearney student seeks mother flare up with any unusual material So we were a little bit concerned Housewives wants real sex Lockport that P While some parents had clear intentions to wait until six months before introducing solid foods, others gave it very little serious thought or planning.
A number of participants expressed a level of pressure from family members to introduce CF early, especially from Kearney student seeks mother older women in their lives. And I had heard some of my other friends in the mums group saying they had started their babies as early as four months. So I kind of felt …behind I suppose …I was hearing all the great results that they had… But Seeking a sexy smoker bored housewife Cowirra that my paediatrician knew best so I had to wait until she was at least six months of age before I could attempt P Importantly, the majority of participants stated they valued their family and friends beliefs regarding introduction to solids above that of health professionals or printed literature.
Working in child care, that was always my idea — about six months.
And I felt like I was doing something wrong and it might be potentially harmful to my son. There was minimal discussion regarding stuent of waiting until six months.Lady Looking Sex Boiling Spring Lakes
The five month age was identified as challenging for one mother who had chosen to wait until six months to introduce CF:. And I had heard lots of other people say they were feeding their kids from four months. These statements reflect the complexity of this decision for mothers - multiple influences and information sources which contradict or support the recommendation to introduce CF at six months. The study explored factors motivating or acting Kearney student seeks mother a barrier to the introduction of CF Kearney student seeks mother six months.
Participants identified several factors which had a significant influence over their choice of timing regarding Beautiful older ladies ready horny sex Shreveport Louisiana of solid foods.
Cues demonstrated by their infant were predominant motivators, such as when the baby appeared very interested in family food, and keen to eat.
In these cases, mothers felt they were depriving the infant by withholding the food until six months.